In view of the increasing State’s influence in the economy around the World, especially in 2010s, we start publishing series of lectures dedicated to interaction between State and Business. The author examines the State’s participation in economic life of some countries and beyond national borders, State’s relationship with Private Capital in the conditions of the market economy formation and further internationalization. The term “State capitalism” is becoming widespread again in the World. This is largely due to the increasing number of companies with State participation among the leading transnational corporations, especially coming from emerging economies. The course of lectures deals with the history of interaction between State and Business and is intended for undergraduate and graduate students studying the History of economic Thought and economic policy. It may also be useful for everybody interested in evolution of the State’s role in one of the key areas of its influence — economy.