The paper shows the evaluation of significance of Northern and Eastern shelf areas development and protection for the Russian Federation. Taking into account the shelves natural features it shows that only through application of new methods of oceanic construction industry proposed by the authors, based on nanotechnology developed by them, it is possible to create conditions for underwater/subglacial exploration and mineral resources mining in these areas and their infrastructure development in general. A specific example of creating subglacial naval base like an anchored subglacial aircraft-carrier for protection of the northern shelf natural resources and providing efficient safeguarding of the RF production-mining complexes on the shelf is considered.
The main risk of long-term technological structure is the formation of unfriendly technological space as the human habitat.
Advances in the transfer of the Russian economy onto innovative way of development determine its future. The rate of adaptation of high technology, including nanotechnology, largely depends on the interest of business and the whole society in their active application. And therefore the following things become of utmost importance: formation of innovative thinking, awakening of interest in modern technology for development and management of innovative projects among the youth, which is a potential human resource for their implementation. The International Youth Innovation Forum “Russia and the World — 2020” became the site for discussions of innovation and nanotechnology industry development issues.