In 2017 it is 60 years since the beginning of the practical development of outer space by man. Behind spectacular launches of spacecraft there are high technologies and bold engineering solutions, the triumph of science, the titanic work of those who know that the impossible is possible, those who make possible ever more distant and long space expeditions. Manned flights to the Moon and Mars have already become tangible reality, and automatic stations have already reached the limits of the solar system. Alexander Petrovich Danilkin, the chief engineer of the Central Research Institute of Machine Building, Candidate of Engineering Sciences told the “ES” readers about outstanding space engineers, who made a great contribution to the development of the Russian and world space, the authors of advanced space developments.
Today, the information economic space can be boldly divided into traditional, old and new one, which has linked the economy with the computer industry. The use of products associated with the abstract art trends is conditioned by desire to show the significance of the name and works of the great Russian artist Kandinsky. Kandinsky’s conquest of the Internet falls on the time of the computer industry. When the artist’s creative ideas reached the Internet, the use of his works became the property of producers and consumers of goods. During his life, Kandinsky himself could hardly imagine the consonance of the abstract art with computer technologies. Life has proved that perception of Kandinsky’s creative work by producers and consumers is performed through trend and the brand. An active economic life begins, creative ideas and images of Kandinsky’s paintings work in a market economy, they earn money. It is enough to type “Kandinsky” in Internet and to see that not only the name, but also his abstract art inspired industrialists, trade, marketing, designers, advertising. We speak about using Kandinsky’s paintings while organizing exhibitions, for decorating goods, packaging, design, advertising. He is interesting for scientific circles, industrial circles, advertising circles — everywhere, where the modern economic information space extends.
One of the most important tasks remains the need to understand why two processes were going at such a speed: coming to power in Germany of the NSDAP headed by Adolf Hitler and the subsequent consolidation around the National Socialists not only of a significant part of the German electorate but also of the right (first of all right-wing) forces in Europe and in the world as a whole.
A lot has been written about the United Nations International Monetary and Financial Conference in Bretton Woods. Let us dwell on a less well-known story. The author describes the events connected with the Soviet delegation’s participation in this conference, and about the circumstances of taking a decision on the USSR’s participation (or rather, non-participation) in the work of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development created at the conference.
The article tells about the life of the legendary financier, candidate of economic sciences, multiple holder of the Order of the Labor Red Banner Andrei Ilyich Dubonosov (1900–1978). In the Soviet period, he headed the Moscow People’s Bank in London (1959–1967). Under his leadership the bank increased its assets by almost 30 times, began to work actively with British government securities, expanded loans to local urban projects and participation in the foreign exchange market activities. Contribution of Andrei Ilyich into these achievements is enormous. The people close to him — his son L.A. Dubonosov and his student V.V. Gerashchenko share with us their memories of an outstanding banker.
Among the most famous collections of archival documents of сonsiderable interest to researchers of national history of the Soviet period, there is the so-called personal archive of I.V. Stalin. Currently, these documents are stored in the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History. The author analyzes the documents, “confiscated with the help of agents” from A.I. Guchkov, on the history of the German-Polish-Japan coalition and its plans against the Soviet Union.
The article tells the history of creating a widespread now financial instrument — Eurodollar, about the role in its appearance of the USSR and the Soviet banks abroad — Moscow Narodny Bank in London and Eurobank in Paris, about the events preceding its appearance — the International Monetary and Financial Conference in Bretton-Woods, about the USSR’s attempts to escape from American sanctions. The article describes the consequences of introducing Eurodollar, of establishing new order for US dollar use in the world and the punishment of countries not supporting these new rules. One example of control over implementation of sanctions imposed by the United States is the story of punishing the Soviet Union for trade with Cuba, when US dollars, been applied by Moscow Narodny Bank for buying Cuban sugar, were blocked for 30 years. The article is dedicated to professionalism and ingenuity of the Soviet bankers and to the errors they committed, by inexperience.